JVP waveform The Jugular Venous Pressure WaveformThe jugular venous pulsation has a biphasic waveform.
-The ” a ” wave corresponds to right Atrial contraction and ends synchronously with the carotid artery pulse. The peak of the ‘a’ wave demarcates the end of atrial systole. The ” x ” descent follows the ‘a’ wave and corresponds to atrial relaXation and rapid atrial filling due to low pressure.
-The ” c ” wave corresponds to right ventricular Contraction causing the triCuspid valve to bulge towards the right atrium. tricuspid valve closure is marked by c wave
-The ” x’ ” (x prime) descent follows the ‘c’ wave and occurs as a result of the right ventricle pulling the tricuspid valve downward during ventricular systole. The x’ (x prime) descent can be used as a measure of right ventricle contractility.
-The ” v ” wave corresponds to Venous filling when the tricuspid valve is closed and venous pressure increases from venous return – this occurs during and following the carotid pulse.
-The ” y ” descent corresponds to the rapid emptYing of the atrium into the ventricle following the opening of the tricuspid valve.